Detoxification: Connection with Nutrition
Here are just a few of the many citations that show the links between the
detoxification and nutritional systems. My goal is to flesh out the entire
site with this next layer of connections.
Int J Toxicol. 2002 Sep-Oct;21(5):419-24.
Int J Toxicol. 2002 Sep-Oct;21(5):419-24.
- Can nutrition
affect chemical toxicity?
University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA; and GNLD,
International, Fremont, California, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Universally, the general population is exposed to a variety of "toxic"
substances. Some of these are from manufactured goods and some from air and
water pollution. Toxins are also normally found in many foods; however, unless
the exposure is overwhelming, we are many times (even unknowingly) protected
by the foods we eat. A judicious choice of food will counteract noxious
agents. Therefore, the diet can be a major factor in determining who does and
who does not show toxic symptoms following exposure. This review will cover
three aspects. The first will be on protectors against metal toxicity. For
example, whereas humans can consume
fish that have absorbed mercury from contaminated bay water, selenium can act
as a natural antagonist for mercury poisoning. (Naturally, too much selenium
itself can be detrimental!) Some vegetables can accumulate cadmium from
contaminated soil, and zinc from a variety of nuts is an antagonist of cadmium
toxicity. Nitrites in preserved meats can be converted into
by saliva or mild stomach acid. Vitamin C found in oranges and bell peppers
can inhibit that conversion. In addition, calcium antagonizes both lead and
aluminum toxicity. The second aspect is on oxidants and antioxidants.
Oxidative stress can lead to some cancers, atherosclerosis, and adverse
effects of aging. Antioxidants are the best protectors of the damage caused by
reactive oxygen species (ROS).
The most effective antioxidants are found in highly colored fruits and
vegetables such as carrots, tomatoes, and berries, called
carotenoids. Flavonoids (polyphenols),
another class of effective antioxidants that negate ROS, may or may not be
colored. The third aspect is on gaps in current knowledge. Many foods
naturally contain chemicals that are, in larger concentrations, quite toxic or
carcinogenic. Biotransformations (detoxification mechanisms) involving type I
and type II enzymes are known. Some foods do modify these enzymes either
positively or negatively. Grapefruit contains a substance that inhibits an
isoform of P450, making some cardiac drugs, as substrates, more toxic. There
is inadequate information on what specific components are in a variety of
foods that are associated with cancer prevention. The experimental
carcinogenic compound (and suspected as a human carcinogen) found in
overcooked, burnt, and fried meats and fish, namely IQ
(2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5f]quinoline, will be used as a prototype for
what needs to be known about foods that will affect toxins.
PMID: 12396688 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Connections with hormones:
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2004 Jan-Feb;7(1):1-24.Toxicological
characteristics of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: developmental toxicity,
carcinogenicity, and mutagenicity.
Choi SM, Yoo SD, Lee BM.
Division of Toxicology/Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan
University, Suwon, Kyonggi-do, South Korea.
It is generally accepted that
endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)
play a role in a variety of adverse health effects in an intact organism or its
progeny as a consequence of changes in the endocrine system. Primary toxic
effects of EDCs were reported to be related to infertility, reduction in sperm
count, and teratogenicity, but other important toxic effects of EDCs such as
carcinogenicity and mutagenicity have also been demonstrated. The aim of the
present study was to systematically analyze the toxicological characteristics of
EDCs in pesticides, industrial chemicals, and metals. A comprehensive literature
survey on the 48 EDCs classified by the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) was conducted using a number of databases which included
Medline, Toxline, and Toxnet. The survey results revealed that toxicological
characteristics of EDCs were shown to produce developmental toxicity (81%),
carcinogenicity (79%, when positive in at least one animal species; 48%, when
classified based on IARC evaluation), mutagenicity (79%), immunotoxicity (52%),
and neurotoxicity (50%). Regarding the
hormone-modulating effects of the 48
estrogenic effects were the most predominant in pesticides, while effects on
thyroid hormone were found for heavy metals.
showing estrogen-modulating effects were closely related to carcinogenicity or
with a high degree of sensitivity. Systematic information on the
toxicological characteristics of the EDCs will be useful for future research
directions on EDCs, the development of new screening methods, legal regulation,
and for investigations of their mechanism of action.
PMID: 14681080 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Toxins and the Immune System
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004 Jul 15;198(2):86-94.
Developmental immunotoxicology of lead.
Dietert RR, Lee JE, Hussain I, Piepenbrink M.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine,
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. email@example.com
The heavy metal, lead, is a known
that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other
species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead
exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune
cells. In contrast, changes resulting
from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but,
nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced
immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function
toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias
alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby
influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to
lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to
dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune
alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the
latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for
lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of
lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also
provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across
life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of
immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to
serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases
PMID: 15236947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]